# Tag: Statistics (231)

http likes 68**Analytics 101: Comparing KPIs**- Mar 20, 2017.

Different business units in the organisation have different behaviours (e.g. turnover rate) and they can’t be compared with each other. So, how can we tell whether the changes in their behaviour are reasons for concern?**17 More Must-Know Data Science Interview Questions and Answers, Part 3**- Mar 15, 2017.

The third and final part of 17 new must-know Data Science interview questions and answers covers A/B testing, data visualization, Twitter influence evaluation, and Big Data quality.

**Get more insights from fewer experiments**- Mar 3, 2017.

Efficient experimentation can save both time and money in the long term when it helps optimize product or process performance. This webcast shows how a dynamic model can dramatically improve outcomes.**Introduction to Correlation**- Feb 22, 2017.

Correlation is one of the most widely used (and widely misunderstood) statistical concepts. We provide the definitions and intuition behind several types of correlation and illustrate how to calculate correlation using the Python pandas library.**Causation or Correlation: Explaining Hill Criteria using xkcd**- Feb 20, 2017.

This is an attempt to explain Hill’s criteria using xkcd comics, both because it seemed fun, and also to motivate causal inference instructures to have some variety in which xkcd comic they include in lectures.**Removing Outliers Using Standard Deviation in Python**- Feb 16, 2017.

Standard Deviation is one of the most underrated statistical tools out there. It’s an extremely useful metric that most people know how to calculate but very few know how to use effectively.**The Top Predictive Analytics Pitfalls to Avoid**- Jan 23, 2017.

Predictive modelling and machine learning are significantly contributing to business, but they can be very sensitive to data and changes in it, which makes it very important to use proper techniques and avoid pitfalls in building data science models.**A Non-comprehensive List of Awesome Things Other People Did in 2016**- Jan 10, 2017.

A top statistics professor and statistical researcher reflects on a number of awesome accomplishments by individuals in, and related to, the fields of statistics and data science, with a focus on the world of academia but with resonance far beyond.**3 methods to deal with outliers**- Jan 3, 2017.

In both statistics and machine learning, outlier detection is important for building an accurate model to get good results. Here three methods are discussed to detect outliers or anomalous data instances.**Top KDnuggets tweets, Dec 14-20: False positives versus false negatives: Best explanation ever**- Dec 21, 2016.

Also #MachineLearning, #AI experts: Main Developments 2016, Key Trends 2017; Official code repository for #MachineLearning with #TensorFlow book; Top 10 Essential Books for the #Data Enthusiast.**Machine Learning vs Statistics**- Nov 29, 2016.

Machine learning is all about predictions, supervised learning, and unsupervised learning, while statistics is about sample, population, and hypotheses. But are they actually that different?**How Bayesian Inference Works**- Nov 15, 2016.

Bayesian inference isn’t magic or mystical; the concepts behind it are completely accessible. In brief, Bayesian inference lets you draw stronger conclusions from your data by folding in what you already know about the answer. Read an in-depth overview here.**Trump, The Statistics of Polling, and Forecasting Home Prices**- Nov 12, 2016.

Why polling has failed in US Presidential election? The home price index offers an apt comparison inasmuch as sample selection is problematic, equally snagging both election predictions and home price futures.**How Can Lean Six Sigma Help Machine Learning?**- Nov 1, 2016.

The data cleansing phase alone is not sufficient to ensure the accuracy of the machine learning, when noise / bias exists in input data. The lean six sigma variance reduction can improve the accuracy of machine learning results.**Data Science Basics: Data Mining vs. Statistics**- Sep 28, 2016.

As a beginner I was confused at the relationship between data mining and statistics. This is my attempt to help straighten out this connection for others who may now be in my old shoes.**The Great Algorithm Tutorial Roundup**- Sep 20, 2016.

This is a collection of tutorials relating to the results of the recent KDnuggets algorithms poll. If you are interested in learning or brushing up on the most used algorithms, as per our readers, look here for suggestions on doing so!**How top companies use data to make wise decisions**- Sep 15, 2016.

Lucky people are those who pay attention to patterns and maintain a healthy curiosity. Download JMP Foreword magazine and read about those people.**8451: Statistical Model Research Scientist**- Sep 9, 2016.

Seeking a Research Scientist who will employ skills and experience to improve, create and innovate data-driven modeling approaches for our price and promotion solutions, while anticipating and charting future research needs.**A Tutorial on the Expectation Maximization (EM) Algorithm**- Aug 25, 2016.

This is a short tutorial on the Expectation Maximization algorithm and how it can be used on estimating parameters for multi-variate data.**Central Limit Theorem for Data Science – Part 2**- Aug 16, 2016.

This post continues an explanation of Central Limit Theorem started in a previous post, with additional details... and beer.**Central Limit Theorem for Data Science**- Aug 12, 2016.

This post is an introductory explanation of the Central Limit Theorem, and why it is (or should be) of importance to data scientists.**Understanding the Empirical Law of Large Numbers and the Gambler’s Fallacy**- Aug 12, 2016.

Law of large numbers is a important concept for practising data scientists. In this post, The empirical law of large numbers is demonstrated via simple simulation approach using the Bernoulli process.**Understand customer needs with choice modeling**- Aug 3, 2016.

Which product features are most important to your customers? This case study of American vs Belgian chocolate choice analysis can help you understand which factors drive your customer.**KDnuggets™ News 16:n28, Aug 3: Data Science Stats 101; Understanding NoSQL Databases; Core of Data Science**- Aug 3, 2016.

Data Science Statistics 101; 7 Steps to Understanding NoSQL Databases; The Core of Data Science; Data Science for Beginners 2: Is your data ready?**What Statistics Topics are Needed for Excelling at Data Science?**- Aug 2, 2016.

Here is a list of skills and statistical concepts suggested for excelling at data science, roughly in order of increasing complexity.**Doing Statistics with SQL**- Aug 2, 2016.

This post covers how to perform some basic in-database statistical analysis using SQL.**Data Science Statistics 101**- Jul 28, 2016.

Statistics can often be the most intimidating aspect of data science for aspiring data scientists to learn. Gain some personal perspective from someone who has traveled the path.**Why Big Data is in Trouble: They Forgot About Applied Statistics**- Jul 18, 2016.

This "classic" (but very topical and certainly relevant) post discusses issues that Big Data can face when it forgets, or ignores, applied statistics. As great of a discussion today as it was 2 years ago.**Big Data, Bible Codes, and Bonferroni**- Jul 8, 2016.

This discussion will focus on 2 particular statistical issues to be on the look out for in your own work and in the work of others mining and learning from Big Data, with real world examples emphasizing the importance of statistical processes in practice.**How to Compare Apples and Oranges ? : Part III**- Jul 6, 2016.

In the previous article, look at techniques to compare categorical variables with the help of an example. In this article, we shall look at techniques to compare mixed type of variables i.e. numerical and categorical variables together.**Civis Analytics: Data Scientist, Statistics**- Jun 28, 2016.

Seeking a Data Scientist to work closely and collaboratively with analysts and engineers to develop and operationalize the techniques that quantify and solve big, meaningful problems.**How to Compare Apples and Oranges, Part 2 – Categorical Variables**- Jun 21, 2016.

In the previous article, we looked at some of the ways to compare different numerical variables. In this article, we shall look at techniques to compare categorical variables with the help of an example.**How to Compare Apples and Oranges – Part 1**- Jun 17, 2016.

We are always told that apples and oranges can’t be compared, they are completely different things. Learn as an analyst, how you deal with such difference and make sense of it on a daily basis.**Machine Learning Classic: Parsimonious Binary Classification Trees**- Jun 14, 2016.

Get your hands on a classic technical report outlining a three-step method of construction binary decision trees for multiple classification problems.**Webcast: Learn how statisticians can work across disciplines.**- Jun 13, 2016.

Learn why subject-matter experts are better off when they understand their data; how traditional statistics has missed an opportunity; why it takes a long time for some methods to gain popularity and more.**Data Science of Variable Selection: A Review**- Jun 7, 2016.

There are as many approaches to selecting features as there are statisticians since every statistician and their sibling has a POV or a paper on the subject. This is an overview of some of these approaches.**Eugenics – journey to the dark side at the dawn of statistics**- Apr 27, 2016.

Today is the 80th anniversary of the death of Karl Pearson, one of the founding father of statistics (correlation coefficient, principal components, the p-value, and much more). He was also deeply involved with eugenics, a jarring reminder that truth often comes bundled with a measure of darkness.**Civis Analytics: Data Scientist, Statistics**- Apr 1, 2016.

Be part of the Research and Development team, responsible for developing the fundamental data science methods, techniques, and best practices that power the mission of our company, performing predictive analytics, algorithm development, experimental design, visualization, and survey research.**Top KDnuggets tweets, Mar 16-21: After 150 Years, ASA Says “NO” to p-values; Free Resources to Learn #MachineLearning**- Mar 22, 2016.

After 150 Years, ASA Says "NO" to p-values; Using Deep Q-Network to Learn Play Flappy Bird; Why we work so hard: The problems is overworked professionals are NOT miserable; Free Resources to Learn #MachineLearning.**The Evolution of the Data Scientist**- Mar 16, 2016.

We trace the evolution of Data Science from ancient mathematics to statistics and early neural networks, to present successes like AlphaGo and self-driving car, and look into the future.**After 150 Years, the ASA Says No to p-values**- Mar 15, 2016.

The ASA has recently taken a position against p-values. Read the overview and opinion of a well-respected statistician to gain additional insight.**When Good Advice Goes Bad**- Mar 14, 2016.

Consider these 4 examples of good statistical advice which, when misused, can go bad.**Bayes Theorem for Computer Scientists, Explained**- Feb 16, 2016.

Data science is vain without the solid understanding of probability and statistics. Learn the basic concepts of probability, including law of total probability, relevant theorem and Bayes’ theorem, along with their computer science applications.**Online Courses, from basic statistics to Big Data and Analytics, from Statistics.com**- Feb 15, 2016.

Statistics.com offers a rich array of online courses to accelerate your data science career or help upgrade the skills of your Big Data team. Small classes, not MOOCs, taught by top instructors - people who write the textbooks and have real industry experience.**Top 10 TED Talks for the Data Scientists**- Feb 9, 2016.

TEDTalks have been a great platform for sharing ideas and inspirations. Here, we have sifted ten interesting talks for the data scientist from statistics, social media and economics domains.**Plausibility vs. probability, prior distributions, and the garden of forking paths**- Jan 14, 2016.

A discussion on plausibility vs. probability: while many given events may be plausible, but they can’t all be probable.**A Non-comprehensive List of Awesome Things other People Did in 2015**- Jan 9, 2016.

A top statistics professor and statistical researcher reflects on a number of awesome accomplishments by individuals in, and related to, the fields of statistics and data science, with a focus on the world of academia but with resonance far beyond.**Predictive Power of Terror Alerts and Monkeys**- Jan 4, 2016.

The terrorism threat advisory system was designed to give the public prior warning to when terrorist plots are about to unfold. However, the analysis shows that this system is not more helpful than monkey throwing a dart.**Amazon Top 20 Books in Statistics**- Nov 9, 2015.

These are the most popular statistics books on Amazon. Some interesting books made their way onto this list, and hopefully you find something of interest here.**Data-Planet Statistical Datasets**- Nov 4, 2015.

Data-Planet Statistical Datasets provides easy access to an extensive repository of standardized and structured statistical data, with more than 25 billion data points from more than 70 source organizations.**We need a statistically rigorous and scientifically meaningful definition of replication**- Oct 29, 2015.

Replication and confirmation are indispensable concepts that help define scientific facts. It seems that before continuing the debate over replication, we need a statistically meaningful definition of replication.**OpenText Data Digest Oct 23: World Statistics Day**- Oct 26, 2015.

This week we look at 3 top entries in the UN competition based around eight Millennium Development Goals to see how well they stack up against the data visualizations you are working on.**Lets talk about Ethics in Analytics / Data Science**- Oct 20, 2015.

Is it time that data scientists go through formal ethics training? The saying “Lies, damned lies, and statistics” suggests that statistics (and Data Science) can be tweaked to prove any point and ethics training will help to improve the integrity and credibility of analytics profession.**ASA says Statistics is Foundational to Data Science**- Oct 9, 2015.

ASA cites statistics as one of three foundational communities in data science and emphasizes the importance of collaboration among all field’s key disciplines.**U. of San Francisco: Tenure Track Professor, Applied Mathematics, Statistics, Data Science**- Sep 24, 2015.

We seek well-qualified candidates in applied mathematics or statistics, with a focus on the extraction of knowledge from data, including data science, modeling, applied probability, applied statistics, and machine learning.**Most popular “Statistical Analysis and Data Mining” Papers**- Sep 9, 2015.

Most popular recent papers from “Statistical Analysis and Data Mining” journal cover They outlier detection, clustering, large-scale analytics, link prediction, mining sequential patterns, and more. They will be free to read for a limited time.**Commonly Misunderstood Analytics Terms**- Sep 3, 2015.

Unable to follow what your analyst language during presentations? Understand what exactly the common terminologies in the data science mean.**How to become a Data Scientist for Free**- Aug 28, 2015.

Here are the most required skills for a data scientist position based on ReSkill’s analyses of thousands of job posts and free resources to learn each skill.**Understanding Basic Concepts and Dispersion**- Aug 10, 2015.

In analytics it is a common practice to understand the basic statistical properties of its variables viz. range, mean and deviation. Centrality measures are the most important to them, explore how to use these measures.**Statistics – Understanding the Levels of Measurement**- Aug 6, 2015.

For doing statistics or analytics it is first step to understand the variables. Moreover, it is important that one truly knows which measure to take with different available types.**CSU East Bay: Faculty, Statistics/Biostatistics, Full-Time Tenure-Track**- Aug 4, 2015.

Teach undergraduate/MS courses in Statistics/Analytics/Data Science/Statistical Learning/Big Data, sustain related research program. Teach, advise, and mentor ethnically diverse students.**KDnuggets™ News 15:n23, Jul 22: Deep Learning Adversarial Examples Myths & Facts; Stop Hiring Data Scientists Until …**- Jul 22, 2015.

Deep Learning Adversarial Examples - facts and myths; Stop Hiring Data Scientists Until; arXiv.org and the 24 Hour Research Cycle; Statistics Denial Myth and Repackaging Statistics.**Statistics Denial Myth: Repackaging Statistics With Straddling Terms**- Jul 16, 2015.

Data science is nothing but the old wine in new bottle versions of the statistics with different fields. Here, we are busting the myth which states data scientist is new and different than traditional statisticians.**Deep Learning and the Triumph of Empiricism**- Jul 7, 2015.

Theoretical guarantees are clearly desirable. And yet many of today's best-performing supervised learning algorithms offer none. What explains the gap between theoretical soundness and empirical success?**Civis Analytics: Data Scientist – Statistics**- Jun 25, 2015.

Apply state-of-the-art statistical methods to our research and develop entirely new methods to use our data in new ways; be a critical voice on determining which statistical approaches are appropriate for which problems.**Applied Statistics Is A Way Of Thinking, Not Just A Toolbox**- May 29, 2015.

The choice of tools in applied statistics is driven by the objective, the structure of the data, and the nature of the uncertainty in the numbers, whereas in academic statistics its driven by publishing or teaching. Here we provide some of common statistical tools and the overlapping genealogy.**Essays On Statistics Denial**- May 20, 2015.

Statistics denial comes in waves as areas of application discover and rediscover the potential of data insights. We examine the statistics denial myths and where they come from.**Top /r/MachineLearning Posts, Mar 22-28: Deep Learning flaws & Security, DeepMind Publications, and Keras**- Mar 30, 2015.

Computer Vision security issues, DeepMind, statistics with Python, hacking on neural networks, and Keras, a neural network library are all topics on top of /r/MachineLearning this week.**Automatic Statistician is here: Dr. Mo**- Mar 21, 2015.

Dr. Mo, Automatic Statistician is here! Using Artificial Intelligence, self-learning algorithm, multimodel technology Dr. Mo achieves Super Accuracy and Speed. Simple use and simple output for non-statisticians.**Top stories for Feb 15-21: 10 things statistics taught us about big data analysis; History of Data Science in 5 strands**- Feb 22, 2015.

My Brief Guide to Big Data and Predictive Analytics for non-experts; 10 things statistics taught us about big data analysis; History of Data Science Infographic in 5 strands; Automatic Statistician and the Profoundly Desired Automation for Data Science.**Top stories for Feb 8-14: 10 things statistics taught us about Big Data; Data Science Most Confused Jargon**- Feb 15, 2015.

10 things statistics taught us about big data analysis; Data Science's Most Used, Confused, and Abused Jargon; Top 30 people in Big Data and Analytics; Cartoon: Data Scientist 3 wishes for Valentine Day.**KDnuggets™ News 15:n05, Feb 11: Annual Salary Poll; 10 things statistics teaches about Big Data; Data Science Jargon**- Feb 11, 2015.

KDnuggets Annual Analytics/Data Science salary poll; 10 things statistics taught us about big data analysis; Data Science's Most Used, Confused, and Abused Jargon; Top 30 people in Big Data and Analytics; and more news, software, opinions, interviews, webcasts, courses, jobs, academic, publications, top tweets, and CFP.**Info Kit: Statistics, Predictive Modeling, Data Mining with JMP**- Feb 10, 2015.

Find out how to challenge assumptions, spot patterns and reveal potential solutions to problems that otherwise would not be visible. Register for this complimentary info kit.**10 things statistics taught us about big data analysis**- Feb 10, 2015.

There are 10 ideas in applied statistics are relevant for big data analysis, focusing on prediction accuracy, interactive analysis and more.**Top KDnuggets tweets, Feb 02-08: 10 things statistics teaches about Big Data analysis; Where is Waldo ruined by Machine Learning**- Feb 9, 2015.

Very useful: 10 things statistics teaches about #BigData analysis; Where's Waldo ruined by a PhD student and #MachineLearning; Great Tutorial: Getting Started with Apache Spark and Python; Clarifai Machine Learning software can understand what is in your videos.**Interview: Rachel Hawley, SAS on the Quest for Agile Analytics**- Feb 3, 2015.

We discuss Agile Analytics, moving from traditional Analytics to Agile, challenges in operationalizing Analytics, SAS Enterprise Decision Management and SAS In-Memory Statistics.**Interview: Amit Sheth, Kno.e.sis on Designing Academic Curriculum for Data Science**- Jan 16, 2015.

We discuss curriculum development around Data Science, trends in Big Data arena, qualities sought in students and more.**Info Kit: Statistics, Predictive Modeling and Data Mining with JMP**- Jan 13, 2015.

Find out how to challenge assumptions, spot patterns and reveal potential solutions to problems that otherwise would not be visible. Register for this complimentary info kit.**Causation vs Correlation: Visualization, Statistics, and Intuition**- Jan 4, 2015.

Visualizations of correlation vs. causation and some common pitfalls and insights involving the statistics are explored in this case study involving stock price time series.**Sports Analytics Innovation Summit 2014 San Francisco: Day 2 Highlights**- Oct 11, 2014.

Highlights from the presentations by Analytics leaders from San Francisco Giants, New York University and LA Dodgers on day 2 of Sports Analytics Innovation Summit 2014 in San Francisco.**Civis Analytics: Data Scientist – Statistics (Senior and Junior roles)**- Oct 7, 2014.

Civis was founded by a team from Obama 2012 and is helping companies, non-profits, and campaigns leverage their data. Apply state-of-the-art statistical methods and develop entirely new methods to use our data in new ways.**Top KDnuggets tweets, Sep 17-18: 20 questions to ask a Data Scientist; Business Analytics ROI is 1301%**- Sep 19, 2014.

20 questions you should ask a Data Scientist for a good conversation; Mad (Data) Scientist asks: "Why Are We Still Teaching t-tests?"; Great slides from @RDataMining: Intro, Data Exploration, Regression, Classification; Rattle package for Data Mining and Data Science in R.**Hiring Data Scientists: What to look for?**- Sep 9, 2014.

Know key characteristics of what makes up a good data scientist based upon the three authors’ consulting and research experience, having collaborated with many companies world-wide on the topics of big data and analytics.**SAS Analytics, Data Mining, Statistics Training – Limited Time Offer**- Aug 12, 2014.

SAS is celebrating training a million users! Don’t miss your opportunity to experience the SAS Business Knowledge Series with this special offer. Register by Aug 31 with promo code BKS1M and save.**Top KDnuggets tweets, Aug 6-7: Becoming a Data Scientist: MS Program, Bootcamp, or MOOCs?**- Aug 8, 2014.

Becoming a Data Scientist: MS Program, Bootcamp, or MOOCs?; Statistics is the *least* important part of data science; New Poll: What languages you used for analytics / data mining in 2014; If you love Pizza and #DataScience, here is a unique job for you.**Top KDnuggets tweets, Jul 30-31**- Aug 1, 2014.

What are the differences between Data Science, Data Mining, Machine Learning, etc; Where do the most romantic US singles live?; 7 signs you're too smart for the job? Not a #BigData problem; Guidelines for statistical education.**Guidelines for statistical education**- Jul 31, 2014.

Data science has grown in importance to the point where statistics education should begin to integrate data science into the core statistics curriculum, as opposed to treating data science as a separate strand.**Top KDnuggets tweets, Jul 16-17: An awesome list of Big Data frameworks**- Jul 18, 2014.

An awesome GitHub list of #BigData frameworks, resources, and more; 15 interviews with 15 data scientists; 14 definitions of data scientist, from funny to serious; Revised standards for statistical evidence.**Top KDnuggets tweets, Jul 7-10: IBM #Watson Swear Filter; How Birth Year Influences Political Views**- Jul 13, 2014.

Appropriate after #BrazilvsGermany - IBM #Watson gets a Swear Filter; How Birth Year Influences Political Views; Analytics methods that "think" like Humans; Why lists of experts in Statistics, Data Science rarely intersect.**How Xbox, Big Data & Statistical Analysis Can Measure Public Opinion**- Jul 11, 2014.

Could the Xbox gaming platform and Big Data hold the key to generating accurate measures of public opinion, such as election polling? A team of statistical scientists think so.**Top KDnuggets tweets, May 23-25: Data Science vs. Statistics: one big difference; A SQL query walks into a bar**- May 26, 2014.

Data Science vs. Statistics: one big difference in Data Science focus; TGIF: A SQL query walks into a bar, approaches two girls at two tables ...; Amazing demo - IBM #Watson analyzes topic, presents a speech, can debate opponents; Microsoft #Kinect as Inexpensive #BigData Tool.**Exclusive Interview: Michael O’Connell, Chief Data Scientist, TIBCO on How to Lead in Big Data**- May 19, 2014.

We discuss Big Data vs. Fast Data, Data Visualization trends, Jaspersoft acquisition, factors differentiating future leaders of Big Data and more.**Interview: Vasanth Kumar, Principal Data Scientist, Live Nation**- May 2, 2014.

We discuss challenges in analyzing bursty data, real-time classification, relevance of statistics and advice for newcomers to Data Science.**Learning and Teaching Machine Learning: A Personal Journey**- Apr 5, 2014.

Joseph Barr examines history and origins of Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence and recounts his personal journey from statistics to industry to teaching machine learning and running R on Unix clusters.**DataScience Central competition: Automate jackknife regression**- Apr 3, 2014.

Data Science Central holds a competition to get statisticians more involved in Data Science - create a black-box, automated, easy-to-interpret, sample-based, robust technique called jackknife regression.**New Book: Practical Data Science with R**- Mar 29, 2014.

This new book will help you learn and apply the R programming language and statistical analysis techniques to carefully explained examples based in marketing, business intelligence, and decision support.**Top KDnuggets tweets, Mar 26-27: Watch “Statistics with R for newbies”; Coursera free #DataScience courses**- Mar 28, 2014.

Also free ebooks on Practical Machine Learning: Innovations in Recommendations, and Apache Hive - How to access big data on Hadoop with SQL/HiveQL.**Scholarships for first-ever Women in Statistics conference, May 15-17, Cary, NC**- Mar 13, 2014.

The JMP team and SAS Women’s Initiatives Network want to empower three statistics students by helping them attend the Women in Statistics conference. Apply by April 11.**Dancing Statistics – who says statistics cannot be fun?**- Mar 10, 2014.

Four little dance routines explain statistical concepts of frequency distributions, sampling, standard error, variance, correlation, and correlation != causation. Enjoy!**Analytically Speaking Webcast with David J. Hand, Mar 5**- Feb 7, 2014.

Join "Analytically Speaking" webcast with David J. Hand, a 2-time president of the Royal Statistical Society, who will explain the commonplace nature of extraordinary events, laws behind chance moments in life, and the great importance of statistics.**Statistical Modeling: The Two Cultures, by Leo Breiman**- Nov 28, 2013.

There are two cultures in the use of statistical modeling to reach conclusions from data. One assumes that the data are generated by a given stochastic data model. The other uses algorithmic models and treats the data mechanism as unknown - read the full paper.